To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Textbook: Soil and Soil Mechanics. Jaafar A Mohammed. Jaafar Brifkani. Through my research and preparations for my study, I got this idea to write this small textbook for civil Engineering students, in an effort to simplify the concepts as well help in making it easier for them by collecting necessary information in a concise manner.
I would like to thank and acknowledge all the researchers and authors whom I relied on their knowledge in my textbook and also, as well as recognize all the other internet resources that proved very valuable in putting together this textbook. Attaullah Shah Water Content Determination Organic Matter Determination Density Unit Weight Determination Specific Gravity Determination Relative Density Determination Atterberg Limits Visual Classification Moisture-Density Relationship Compaction Direct Shear Test Unconfined Compression UC Test It has originated from the Latin word Solum.
To a geologist, it means the disintegrated rock material which has not been transported from the place of origin.
Foundations of all structures have to be placed on or in such soil, which is the primary reason for our interest as Civil Engineers in its engineering behaviour. In fact, according to Terzaghi, it is difficult to draw a distinct line of demarcation between soil mechanics and foundation engineering; the latter starts where the former ends. PM5] Soil mechanics is the science of equilibrium and motion of soil bodies.
The non-weathered material in this crust is denoted as rock, and its mechanics is the discipline of rock mechanics. Soil mechanics has been developed in the beginning of the 20th century. The need for the analysis of the behavior of soils arose in many countries, often as a result of spectacular accidents, such as landslides and failures of foundations. Foundations, embankments, retaining walls, earthworks and underground openings are all designed in part with theories from soil mechanics.
But to a geotechnical engineer, soil has a much broader meaning and can include not only agronomic material, but also broken-up fragments of rock, volcanic ash, alluvium, Aeolian sand, glacial material, and any other residual or transported product of rock weathering. Difficulties naturally arise because there is not a distinct dividing line between rock and soil. For example, to a geologist a given material may be classified as a formational rock because it belongs to a definite geologic environment, but to a geotechnical engineer it may be sufficiently weathered or friable that it should be classified as a soil.
Robert W. Study of soil behavior in a more methodical manner in the area of geotechnical engineering started in the early part of the 18thcentury, and last to Underlying conventional design calculations in geotechnical engineering are different soil models based on concepts of elasticity and plasticity. Underlying most methods of calculating ground movements is the assumption of a linear elastic soil model.To browse Academia.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Soil Mechanics lecture notes. Khalid Aljanabi. Khalid R. Soil mechanics laboratory manual 6th ed.
Geotechnical Engineering Part-1 Made Easy Handwritten Classroom GATE Notes Free Download PDF
Braja M. Das Soil mechanics, R. Craig Solving problems in soil mechanics, B.Soil Mechanics 101 - Phase Relations
Sutton Asst. Mahmood PhD. It will be inspected and returned to you. Appearance of Work All homework and tests must be on engineering paper. Homework and tests must conform to format given in syllabus. Failure to do so will result in reduced credit.
Made Easy Soil Mechanics Hand Written Class Notes Civil
Each time you use an equation, write down what it is: don't just put a bunch of numbers on the page and expect anyone to know what you did. This too will result in reduced credit. You are studying now so that you may enter and practice the engineering profession later. The engineering profession is highly regarded by the public because those who practice it do so with ethical and social consciousness.
The same is expected of students in this course. Gradation of Particle Size 2.
Soil Mechanics Complete Lecture Note
Rock Naturally occurring material composed of mineral particles so firmly bonded together that relatively great effort is required to separate the particles i. Types of Rocks Igneous rocks Sedimentary rocks Metamorphic rocks Igneous Rocks Definition-Rocks formed by the solidification of molten material, either by intrusion at depth in the earth's crust or by extrusion at the earth's surface. Sands Residual sands and fragments of gravel size formed by solution and leaching of cementing material, leaving the more resistant particles; commonly quartz.
Generally, favourable foundation conditions. Clays Residual clays formed by decomposition of silicate rocks, disintegration of shales, and solution of carbonates in limestone.
Variable properties requiring detailed investigation. Deposits present favorable foundation conditions except in humid and tropical climates. Organic Soils: Accumulation of highly organic material formed in place by the growth and subsequent decay of plant life. A somewhat fibrous aggregate of decayed and decaying vegetation matter having a dark colour and odour of decay. Peat deposits which have advanced in stage of decomposition to such extent that the botanical character is no longer evident.
Very compressible, entirely unsuitable for supporting building foundations. Transported Soils Alluvial Soils: Material transported and deposited by running water. Flood plain deposits. Deposits laid down by a stream within that portion of its valley subject to inundation by floodwaters. Point Bar: Alternating deposits of arcuate ridges and swales lows formed on the inside or convex bank of mitigating river bends.
Channel Fill: Deposits laid down in abandoned meander loops isolated when rivers shorten their courses. Back swamp: The prolonged accumulation of floodwater sediments in flood basins bordering a river.
Generally favourable foundation conditions, with important exceptions; frequently require deep foundations.The classification to Learn for free, Pay a small fee for exam and get a certificate. Jul - Dec - Registration form is Opened! Note that, stabilization not necessary a magic wand by which every soil properties can be improved for better Ingles and Metcalf, The decision to technological usage depends on which soil properties have to be modified.
The chief properties of soil which are of interest to engineers are. Mechanical stabilisation Standard and Modified Proctor tests Unsoaked and soaked CBR tests In-situ density Sand cone replacement test Soil permeability Constant head test Variable head test Introduction: Soil Mechanics is an important branch of civil engineering that contributes to the understanding of ….
Therefore the utmost care should be taken to minimize the effect of these processes in order for the results of laboratory tests to represent the in-situ soil behavior accurately. Overview of the building material selection criteria It is defined as the mass of many particles of the. Motivation: In soil mechanics, it is virtually always useful to quantify the size of the grains in a type of soil.
Since a given soil will often be made up of grains of many different sizes, sizes are measured in terms of grain size distributions. Mechanical Properties of Metals Page 6. Some of the groups are in turn divided into subgroups, such as Aa and Ab. Mechanics of SoilsMechanics of Soils Assoc. Derin N. C mechanical properties deformability, strengthC hydraulic properties permeability, storativityC thermal properties thermal expansion, conductivityand C in situ stresses.
This second set of lecture notes focuses on physical properties such as weathering potential, Note th at an empirical Porosity is important because it determines the ease with which water, oxygen, and nitrogen can work their way down between soil particles to the root zones of plants. It provides a comprehensive understanding of soil characteristics and properties. It even contains experiments to help students gain a practical insight into soil mechanics.
Pranav Muktibodh. Rock mechanics deals with the mechanical properties of rock and the related methodologies required for engineering design. The triaxial test procedures have been developed from those which are described in Soil Testing for Engineers by T.
Bishop and D. The consolidation test procedures have been developed from those in Lambe's book. Engineers are concerned with soil's mechanical properties: permeability, stiffness, and strength.
These depend primarily on the nature of the soil grains, the current stress, the water content and unit weight. Peck, R. Geoted1nique, 19 2 Warwick, D.Ardeshir Goshtasby A. Bradley Aaron Reed Aaron W. Everitt B. Davidson Brian L. Patton Brian P. Rodewig Clifton A. Crowder David A. Karp David A. Montague David B. Copeland David Byrnes David C. David D. Gosnell Denise M. Verlag GmbH Dr. Baig Edward Haletky Edward J.
Freeman Daniel H. Fawzi M. J Labrosse Jean J.
Huang J. Peter Bruzzese J. Mackin Jack Burbank Jack L. Brady James F. Hoffer Jeffrey C. Jackson Jeffrey J. Quasney Jeffrey T. Jesper M.
Ferringer John Lewis John N.
Raelin Joseph J. Karl Barksdale Karl G. Pinard Kathy Ivens Kathy T. Keough Kelly Hart Kelly L. Rodewig Knopf Knowledge Kogent Inc. Dana Villamagna M. Marcus Johansson Margaret K. McElderry Books Margaret M. Marie A. Mark J. Trauth Martin J. Zakas Nicholas H. Tollervey Nicholas J. Gedgaudas Norman E.Properties of Soil 2. Classification of Soil 3.
Effective Stress 4. Permeability and Seepage 5. Stress Distribution in Soil. Karl Terzaghi is the father of Soil Mechanics. His first book on Soil Mechanics is Earabaumechanics published in 2. The process of formation of soild is termed as Pedologenesis 3.
The soil is formed due to weathering of rocks, which may be carried out either physically or chemically. Physical agency involved in weathering of rocks includes running water, ice, wind, gravity, etc and chemical agencies involved in weathering includes oxidation, reduction, carbonation etc.
If the weathered rock material is retained over parent rock then it is termed as residual soil and if it is transported then it is termed as transported soil 5. Geological steps involved in the formation of soil are : a.
Weathering b. Transportation c. Deposition d. Upheaval Continues from a again. Alluvial Soil : Deposited from suspension in running water weathering agent is running water, transportation soil. This type of soil is found along the length of river.
Lacustrine Soil : Formed due to deposition from suspension in fresh still water from lake. Marine Soil : Deposition from suspension in sea water. Aeoline Soil : It is the soil which is transported by wind 5. Loess Soil : It is uniformly graded wind blown silt, slightly cemented due to calcium compound or montmorillonite a clay mineral When it is wet, it becomes soft and compressible because cementing action is lost and is collapsed.
Colluvial Soil Talus : It is formed due to transportation by gravitational force, it is found in mountain vallies. Glacial Soil : It is soil which is transported by ice.Introduction to Soil Mechanics. Hop Minh Nguyen. People may often think about civil engineering as the field related to the design and construction of the superstructures above the ground level.
What is not easy to be seen is the foundation system below the building; the construction of this part is, however, a crucial component of any construction project. Failure in the foundation design and construction could easily lead to dire consequences as it can affect the stability of the whole structure. Foundation can be considered as a common type of loading impact on the original ground condition. Civil engineers need to study soil mechanics to be able to understand and predict the behaviour of soils in response to any change to its in-situ original condition, which would happen as the result of the construction activities.
Applications for soil mechanics theories are very diverse, which include among others foundation design, stability analysis of natural and man-made slopes, design of retaining structures and embankments, tunnel design, etc.
An important factor that makes soils apart from other construction materials is: soils are natural materials. Further than that, soils have history, which would explain why soil is now at its current location and condition.
Would it have been formed here or it has been formed at some where else and then transported to the current place? Soil history normally in terms of hundreds or even thousands of years makes soil at each location on the earth unique and affects significantly its behaviour.
Understand what happened in the past helps the engineers to predict what could happen when the material is subjected to new loading conditions. The idea is that the capacity of the material is purposely reduced, so the design would be based on a weaker material and the solution is on the safe side.
We all live on the outmost layer of the earth that is called the crust. The crust is mainly composed of rocks. When the rock surface exposes to the environment, it will be subjected to the weathering processes. For examples, frequent large variations of temperature could lead to rock cracking and ultimately to complete disintegration; or water entering the cracks from the surface could be subjected to freezing and thawing cycle and the volume expansion could also break rock into small fragments.
These two processes not exclusive are classified as physical weathering. In addition, there also have chemical weathering, in which water and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere form carbonic acid that could react with the chemical substances within the composition of rocks. These chemical processes result in the creation of new finer materials with the mineral composition different than the mineralogy of the parent rocks.
Typical soils are silt, sand, gravel, cobble and boulder.Happy free ebook download! The fourth edition further examines the relationships between the maximum and minimum void ratios of granular soils and adds the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials AASHTO soil classification system. It summarizes soil compaction procedures and Proctor compaction tests.
It introduces new sections on vertical stress due to a line load of finite length, vertical stress in Westergaard material due to point load, line load of finite length, circularly loaded area, and rectangularly loaded area. The text discusses the fundamental concepts of compaction of clay soil for the construction of clay liners in waste disposal sites as they relate to permeability and adds new empirical correlations for over-consolidation ratio and compression index for clay soils.
It provides additional information on the components affecting friction angle of granular soils, drained failure envelopes, and secant residual friction angles of clay and clay shale. Happy learning people! Please bear in mind that we do not own copyrights to these books. If someone with copyrights wants us to remove this content, please contact us immediately.
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